Vietnamese exporters want closed credit
According to the Vietnam Cashew Association (Vinacas) in the early months of 2018, due to the high price of imported cashew nuts (an average of $ 2,100 / ton), the price of cashew nuts has fallen sharply. To accept a deposit to cancel the import contract signed with foreign partners. As a result, about 500,000 tons of raw cashew nuts are on the way to Vietnam or are located in bonded warehouses not being transported home. This caused 30% of businesses to temporarily shut down because of no raw materials processing. Vinacas Chairman Nguyen Duc Thanh said that some companies have negotiated with partners to reduce the price from 150-200 per ton. Therefore, if commercial banks continue to lend about US $ 800 million from now until the end of the year, businesses will be able to buy a large amount of raw cashew ($ 1,600-1,700 / ton). Conversely, if you can not get a loan and you have to pay the stake (10%, equivalent to 100-150 USD / order), the damage of the cashew industry will be huge.
The thirst for foreign currency to import raw materials of the sector is a real example of the success or failure of many export agricultural products of Vietnam is heavily dependent on imported raw materials. . In fact, with the import price of $ 1,700 / tonne (roughly equivalent to VND39 million / tonne), it is easy for businesses to recommend banks to continue lending foreign currencies to import raw materials. Up to now, although the annual export turnover is about US $ 3.5 billion, the cashew industry only takes about one fourth of domestic raw materials. Meanwhile, the domestic raw cashew is always higher than the import price from 5,000 to 10,000 VND / kg. Due to this large difference, the dependence of imported raw materials is inevitable.
Another industry that is happening is the shrimp industry. Recent statistics show that although Vietnam is now one of the leading shrimp exporters in the world with a turnover of $ 3.85 billion in 2017, it is also one of the four shrimp importing countries. most raw materials in the world. According to the General Department of Customs, shrimp exports from Vietnam originated from 37 countries around the world. Only in the period 2016-2017, Vietnamese enterprises have spent more than $ 1.3 billion to import raw seafood from the Indian market (mainly frozen shrimp). Shrimp import turnover is too big even made the Vietnam shrimp industry is warned by the EU Fraud Office about the lack of transparency in the origin of goods.
However, this warning does not make the money to reduce shrimp raw material business. With the difference between the price of imported shrimp and the price of domestic shrimp material is too large (such as the difference 30,000-40,000 VND / kg, for raw white shrimp material 40 / kg), the shrimp industry in Vietnam In addition to increasing dependence on imported raw materials, Vietnam is also facing the threat of losing export markets, as shrimp from India and Ecuador only borrows from Vietnam and exports to major markets such as China. and Japan.
Sustainability with a closed model
Cashew firms will petition the SBV to allow commercial banks to implement a "credit package" of about $ 800 million. Although it is unclear whether the recommendations mentioned above have been reached consensus whether the current anti-dollarization target is still determined by the SBV in the long term and gradually moving from the relationship of borrowing to buying and selling. The rescue of foreign currency loans for the cashew industry or other sectors that need to import large raw materials will create a bad precedent for anti-dollarization roadmap that the State Bank of Vietnam is implementing.
Even if the SBV agrees to open a foreign currency credit package, it is unlikely that commercial banks will be open to extending the loan limit. According to Mr. Nguyen Quoc Phong - Director of Eximbank's corporate customers, the common difficulty of cashew business is the low share of equity compared to the loan limit. Once the business risk indicators are pushed up, of course, commercial banks will not boldly lend for risky loans. Therefore, Nguyen Duc Thanh himself said that it is time for the industry to have long-term plans for the construction of sustainable material areas. According to Thanh, now many agricultural products have done pretty well closed models. However, in the cashew industry, fragmentation is still very prevalent with about 450 export enterprises and more than 1,000 small processing establishments.
The linkage between processing enterprises and cashew farmers, although set up for many years, but there are no effective models. This has made the cashew industry fail to participate in the loan support policy under Resolution 14 / NQ-CP dated 5 March 2014 of the Government and Decision 1050/2014 / QD-NHNN of the SBV. Many other businesses such as rice, pangasius, vegetables ... have done this. Taking a step ahead of the cashew industry, shrimp enterprises have been active in establishing closed lending models. According to the representative of the Vietnam Fisheries Association, the agency has coordinated with the Banking Strategy Institute (SBV) to complete the "Code of Participation and Borrowing in the Value Chain of Shrimp in Soc Trang, Bac Lieu and Ca Mau.
Tran Quoc Khoi - Director of the State Bank of Vietnam in Ca Mau province, said that the establishment of this code would be a breakthrough and a strong support for shrimp farmers in the Mekong Delta. In the immediate future, the units will apply this code to pilot self-contained loans for three production models - shrimp consumption in the above mentioned areas, then evaluate and recommend replication to the tissue other image.